Top 20 ASP.NET Interview Questions 2022

ASP.NET is Microsoft’s open-source web framework that helps businesses in understanding fast and secure web applications and services using .NET. ASP.NET also happens to be a cross-platform network with the highest draws. In other words, it is compatible with every desktop operating system. It allows you to create ASP.NET apps using CSS, Jquery, Javascript and HTML. It can also create APIs for third-party resource consumption for platforms like Microsoft, Facebook or Google.

Once you have cleared the qualifying exam for ASP.NET, cracking the interview is your next obstacle. But when you prepare the right way, you have a higher chance of clearing. Take a look at some of the most common ASP.NET interview questions.

Top .NET Interview Questions With Answers:

Q. What is JIT?

A. JIT is an abbreviation that means Just in time and is used in reference to the compiler that executes or converts intermediate code into native languages.

Q. What is CLS?

A. CLS is short for Common Language Specification. CLS helps application developers in using components that are inter-language compatible, using the rules of CLS. It also helps developers in reusing their code while working with other .NET languages.  

Q. What does CTS mean? 

A. Common Type System is abbreviated to CTS. It follows a structured set of rules that mandates the declaration and usage of the data type within the program code. CTS describes and defines each data type that will be used in an application. You can generate personalised or unique classes and functions too using CTS. In doing so, the data type is called ‘declared’ by different languages when you write it using specific programming languages.

Q. Can you explain the difference between int and int32?

A. int and int32 are often used interchangeably and aren’t mutually exclusive. Int is the short form of int32 when used in C#. int32 is a type provided by a class of the ASP.NET framework.

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Q. State the differences between value type and reference type.

A. There are several fundamental differences between the two.

  1. Value type stores real data directly in the location of its memory. Reference type stores a pointer that comprises the address of a different memory location containing the actual data. 
  2. Contents within the value type get stored in the stack memory, while those of reference type go into heap memory.
  3. When a variable of value type gets assigned to separate variables, the values are directly copied. When a variable of reference type gets assigned to separate variables, a copy of the reference gets created instead of getting copied directly. 
  4. Some examples of value type are enums, structures and predefined data types. Some examples of reference type are objects, classes, interfaces, indexers and arrays.

Q. Is ASP.NET the same as ASP? If not, how are they different?

A. Active server page is the full form of ASP. There are some significant differences between ASP and ASP.NET.

  • ASP uses VBScript code that goes to the execution stage before interpretation. ASP.NET uses VB.NET, C# and other .NET languages. Each language is compiled to MS intermediate language.
  • Microsoft created ASP to be a server-side technology and create pages. It designed ASP.NET to create dynamic web applications.
  • ASP.NET is fully object-oriented, while ASP is only partially object-oriented.
  • ASP.NET provides 100% XML support, but ASP doesn’t have XML support built in for data exchange.
  • ASP works and connects with databases via ADO tech. ASP.NET uses ADO.NET technology to do the same.

Q. What is Microsoft Intermediate Language?

A. MS Intermediate Language is often abbreviated to MSIL. It’s a language that instructs users in the different methods they can use to call, initialise and store value, handle memory and exceptions and other tasks. The MSIL instructions are not platform-dependent. Instead, they are generated using the source code’s language-specific executor or compiler. Using JIT compilers, you can combine MSIL into the code based on your business needs. 

Q. State the differences between managed and unmanaged code.

A. Managed code is different from unmanaged code in many ways.

  • CLR manages managed code but doesn’t manage unmanaged code.
  • You need a .NET framework to execute managed code, but not for unmanaged code.
  • Managed code manages memory using garbage collection, while unmanaged code uses its own runtime environment.

Q. Define an assembly.

A. An assembly can be understood as an auto-generated file generated by the compiler. An assembly is made of various types and resources, designed to function in this generation by forming logical functionality units. That is to say, an assembly refers to a logical unit made of code and compiled code. You can execute these files in either the executable (.exe) format or the dynamic link library (.dll) format. 

Q. What are the types of assemblies?

A. There are two broad categories to divide assembly types - private assembly and shared or public assembly.

Private assembly:

  • Only apps can access this assembly
  • It must be separately copied into each app folder where the assembly will be used. You cannot access the private assembly without doing so.

Shared or public assembly:

  • A public assembly is easily shareable through several apps.
  • You don’t need to copy a public assembly into each application folder. All you need is a single copy of this assembly at the systemic level to use across multiple applications. 
  • A public assembly should be installed in the Global Assembly Cache or GAC.

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Q. In the context of ASP.NET, what is a garbage collector?

A. This is a feature that uses unused free code within the system memory. A garbage collector is divided into memory heaps of three generations:

  • Gen 0 has short-living objects
  • Gen 1 has medium-living objects
  • Gen 2 has long-living objects

Garbage collection in the ASP.NET context refers to the process to check objects across generations and find ones that the application isn’t using anymore. It also carries out critical operations and processes to reclaim memory. Garbage collectors help free up memory in the system. There are several things involved in the garbage collection process. 

  • Recognise all live or active objects.
  • Update existing references for all compact objects. 
  • Recollect any memory that dead objects use. Every remaining object then goes into an older segment. 

In .NET, this method of garbage collection is known as system.GC.collect().

Q. What is caching all about? Explain what you know.

A. Caching is a process used to temporarily store data in system memory. This ensures easy data access through apps using system memory rather than going back to the data’s original location. This enhances an application’s speed and performance significantly. You can categorise caching into three broad types. 

  • Page caching
  • Data caching 
  • Fragment caching

Q. What is MVC?

A. The full form of MVC is Model View Controller. It is an architectural type that is used during the development of .NET applications. MVC has three main components: the model, the view and the controller.

  • Model: The model contains data and related logic. A model is used for storing or retrieving objects from an app’s database. Here’s one sample situation: a controller object is used to retrieve data from the given database. The data is either manipulated and returned or rendered and used.
  • View: A view deals with an application’s user interface or UI. Views access data for display purposes from existing models. A typical situation would be where employees can have an app view with text boxes, dropdowns and various other parts. 
  • Controller: Controllers deal with user interactions. They manage and formulate input responses from users and render the given output. One typical situation would be where employee controllers handle each input and interaction through Employee view and update their database using their Employee Model.

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Q. What is a delegate in .NET?

A. Delegates are .NET objects defining a method’s signature. A delegate can pass functions as parameters quite easily. It generally redirects to methods matching its signature. Users can cover a method reference within delegate objects. When such objects pass through programs, this becomes the referenced method. A delegate is used to create customised events within classes.

Q. What is the role of ‘manifest’ in a .NET framework?

A. Manifest primarily stores the metadata of an assembly. This refers to metadata that systems and users require for multiple purposes such as:

  • Data related to assembly vision
  • Data to check the scope of the assembly
  • Data to validate class references
  • Data to identify security measures and follow protocols

Q. What is the meaning of CAS in .NET?

A. Code Access Security or CAS is vital for systems looking to prevent unauthorised access to programs and resources while they run. CAS was built to solve problems arising due to code obtained from outside (external sources). Code received from an external source might have bugs and vulnerabilities that can endanger the system of a user. It also ensures limited access to the code so that only key functions are carried out instead of every function together. CAS makes up a part of the native security architecture of .NET. 

Q. Which categories of memories does a .NET framework support?

A. A .NET framework has two broad types of memory. These are stack and heap.

  • Heap memory is used to store references and track more precise objects and data. It is useful while allocating dynamic memory.
  • Stack memory is used to store values and track all threats and their locations. It is useful while allocating static memory.

There are many different questions at varying levels of difficulty that you can look through while preparing. By studying these questions and their related domains, you will definitely have a higher chance of clearing your job interview.

Q. What is localisation and globalisation?

A18. Localisation refers to how applications undergo customisation to perform according to the area’s locale and culture. In addition, globalisation refers to the process through which applications are designed for users worldwide with support for multiple languages. 

This post compiled a few prominent .NET interview questions. If you familiarise yourself with these basic .NET interview questions, you can clear your ASP.NET interview. If you haven’t yet passed the written exam, enrol in a certification training course today.

Armin Vans
Sheyans is a Android Certified Developer and certified professional with rich experience in Application Development, Programming, and Corporate training. He delivered training on CEH, CPENT, ECSA, Security+, CNDV2, CISSP, CISM, Android, iOS, Java, Objective C, Swift, and Xamarin Mobile Framework.

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