As per Moore’s law, computer processing speed doubles every 18 months. Technology is advancing at a rapid pace all around us, which has been made possible through the constant evolution of programming languages.

Programming languages consist of the code that communicates instructions that a user gives to a computer and enables the right execution. As hardware continues to evolve to include more functionalities and utility, programming languages too keep changing to accommodate more instructions and commands.

About a decade ago, programmers were a small group of specialists that organisations looked up to for huge projects and regarded with awe. However, many job roles in the IT industry today need you to have a solid grasp on one or more programming languages.

If you are searching for the best programming languages to learn, there are a number of factors to consider. From learning objective to the level of complexity to job requirement, every language fulfills a different purpose. It is important for you to consider the features and benefits of each programming language before you start on your learning journey.

 

Here are the best programming languages to learn in 2021:

 

1. Python:

Python is one of the most commonly used programming languages today. It is an easy programming language to learn because of its readability. Python is a free, open-source programming language with extensive support modules and community development, easy web services integration, user-friendly data structures, and GUI-based desktop apps. It is a programming language widely used for Machine Learning (ML) and deep learning applications, to develop 2D imaging and 3D animation packages like Blender, Inkscape and Autodesk. Popular video games like Civilization IV, Vegas Trike and Toontown were developed using Python.

Python can be used easily by beginners and allows them to become productive with it soon enough. The main benefits of Python are:

  • Flexibility
  • Naturally/ intuitively readable
  • Credible official tutorials and documentation exists
  • Scripted instead of compiled, unlike other programming languages

To work with python you need problem-solving and abstract thinking skills. The only downside to learning Python is that it doesn’t start with programming basics, meaning it abstracts too many basic concepts.

 

2. Java:

Java is owned by Oracle Corporation and is one of the most in-demand computer programming languages in the world today. It is a standard programming language, applied to applications that can be used regardless of the platform - Apple, Android etc - owing to its WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere) capabilities. Java’s WORA capabilities also ensure it is recognised for easy portability across platforms, from mainframe data centres to smart mobile devices.

There are more than 3 billion devices today that run Java applications. Java is used extensively in web and app development and Big Data. Many popular websites including Google, Amazon, Twitter and Youtube use Java in the back-end. Newer Java frameworks like Spring, Struts and Hibernate are also extremely popular. If you want to learn, there are hundreds of texts written and shared by the millions of Java developers around the world.

Java is an intermediate level language that demands problem-solving skills and knowledge of Java’s object-oriented structure. Its main benefits are:

  • Teaches you how to think like a programmer
  • Enables you to access/ manipulate the most vital parts of your system like the system files, graphics and speakers for a range of fairly sophisticated programs that run on any operating system.

 

3. JavaScript and TypeScript:

Like Java, JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language, mainly used to add interactivity and engaging effects within web browsers. TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, used to add optional static typing to the programming language.

JavaScript is one of the three main technologies within the World Wide Web, the other two being HTML and CSS. Popular websites like Google, Wikipedia, YouTube and Facebook use JavaScript at the front-end too. JavaScript is also incorporated in popular frameworks like AngularJS, Node.js and React.js.

There are multiple benefits of JavaScript:

  • Adds responsive elements on web pages, including games, dropdown menus, animations and video players.
  • Used to create mobile apps since the introduction of frameworks like PhoneGap and React.
  • Vue.js, Angular, Node and React Native are also JavaScript-based frameworks, which makes JavaScript a significantly important programming language. Uber, PayPal and Netflix use Node.js extensively.

You May Also Like: 10 Reasons You Should Learn R, Python, and Hadoop

 

4. Swift:

Swift was developed by Apple Inc to provide a single platform with a wide range of applications - from desktop and mobile apps, to cloud services and systems programming. Launched in 2014 for Linux and Mac, Swift was among the top 10 in the monthly TIOBE Index ranking that identifies popular programming languages. It is an open-source programming language which is easier to learn and requires a lot less coding as compared to other programming languages.

Swift can be used with IBM Swift Sandbox and IBM Bluemix and is used in popular apps like WordPress, Mozilla Firefox and SoundCloud. There are many reasons for choosing Swift to make your resume more impressive. The main benefits include:

  • Flexible and secure programming, built on the fundamentals of Objective C.
  • Offers the flexibility, dynamic dispatch, extendable programming and late binding of Objective C, without the posed performance and security issues that it has.
  • Faster than C, Objective C and C++. New Swift modules that you write can easily be integrated with existing Objective-C codebases.
  • Allows the usage of emoji in the code
  • Easy-on-the-eyes syntax, very close to spoken English and is easy for beginners to learn. This prevents typing errors in the code.
  • Offers automatic memory management and error management. Similar to Python, Swift is scalable to a great degree and allows new features to be added to pre-existing code.

 

5. Ruby:

Developed in 1990, Ruby was designed to have a more human-friendly syntax. Its object-oriented architecture supports procedural and functional programming and is highly flexible. Ruby is a great programming language to start with if you are looking to learn programming languages.

Ruby on Rails (RoR) is a web-application framework that is implemented in Ruby. According to developers, it is an easy language to work with and requires very little time to learn. You need to have problem-solving skills and be able to visualise what application users want to see.

The main benefits of Ruby are:

  • No specialised vocabulary is needed to get started
  • Implements a good programming style
  • Highly flexible

Additional Read: Java Certification: A Complete Guide [Updated]

 

6. C and C++:

C is among the oldest programming languages still highly in use. It is the root of many other languages. C#, Java and JavaScript have all branched out from C. C++ is an enhanced version of C. Developers today are divided on how to learn C. Some skip learning C on its own, preferring to take up C++ or C# instead. Others believe that learning C first gives a strong grasp on the fundamentals of the language.

Despite the difference in opinion, both languages are widely used in computer science and programming. Since C and C++ are focused at low-level management of computer resources, you must have knowledge of computer functions like memory management before you start learning. You should also have problem-solving skills along with basic computer knowledge.

Both C and C++ are high-performance programming languages. They are used extensively in the development of client/ server applications, commercial products like Firefox and Adobe, video games, and other applications where performance is a critical issue. There are different benefits when it comes to C and C++.

  • C teaches you the fundamentals of a variety of languages other than just C.
  • C++ gives you a lot more control than other programming languages

However, there are also a few downsides to them.

  • C has a steep learning curve. It is not very easy to learn and takes a lot of time for beginners to get a hang of.
  • C++ is highly challenging to learn and gain fluency compared to C. Java is a lot easier to learn in this regard.

 

7. Kotlin:

In May 2019, Google declared Kotlin as their programming language of choice for Android app development. The same way that Swift was developed to overcome the drawbacks of Objective C, Kotlin was designed to be an improvement on the shortcomings of Java.

Since its launch in 2011, it continues to grow its loyal user base with users switching over from Java for a better experience. Kotlin is a license-free, open-source language and encourages the exchange of ideas for development as a community. It offers a lean syntax that is easy to write and learn, more specifically, it uses code volumes that are 20% shorter than that of Java. What makes it so easy to use and interoperable is the fact that Java codes can run on Kotlin and vice-versa.

The main benefits of using Kotlin are:

  • Key value additions for the developer, including operator overloading, null safety and data. It also has a lazy-loading feature that reduces the app load-time and improves the user experience.
  • It is packaged with an advanced compiler to maintain checks and balances at compile and run time.

Get Started Today!

If you want to move laterally into a new field, advance along the corporate ladder at your organisation, or start a career as a programmer, learning one of the languages on this list is the perfect place to begin. Choose a language depending on your fluency and current skillset and enroll with a training program at Koenig to start learning today.

Koenig offers flexible hours and time slots and uses a 1-to-1 teaching methodology. You get not only the skills and knowledge required but also the certification that validates your expertise. This means a more lucrative resume, more career opportunities and that high salary package that has been eluding you.

Armin Vans
Sheyans is a Android Certified Developer and certified professional with rich experience in Application Development, Programming, and Corporate training. He delivered training on CEH, CPENT, ECSA, Security+, CNDV2, CISSP, CISM, Android, iOS, Java, Objective C, Swift, and Xamarin Mobile Framework.

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