Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

By Michael Warne 06-Feb-2023
Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

There was a time when the world of computer programming was full of mystery. Today, many IT jobs require knowledge of the best programming languages. People who want to switch jobs and learn something new search for the most popular programming language. 

People should learn different programming languages to change their job profiles and enter the information technology field. Some people may think about the programming language they should study. Learning anything new requires some time and money. Therefore, people search for the best programming language to learn, the best coding language to learn, and the different programming languages.

Earlier, developers or programmers were a limited group of experts that companies employed to work on large projects but today, multiple job profiles in the IT industry require employees to be well-versed with the most popular and different programming languages.

To learn a programming language, a person must think of multiple factors as each programming language has a contrasting objective like job requirements, level of difficulty, etc. It is significant for everyone to contemplate the characteristics and perks of learning a programming language before the commencement of the learning journey and why people want to learn the most popular programming languages.

Whether people wish to get certified in a programming language they learn or master new skills, people are required to grasp the appropriate programming language.

As per Moore’s law, computer processing speed doubles every 18 months. Technology is advancing at a rapid pace all around us, which has been made possible through the constant evolution of programming languages.

Programming languages consist of the code that communicates instructions that a user gives to a computer and enables the right execution. As hardware continues to evolve to include more functionalities and utility, programming languages too keep changing to accommodate more instructions and commands.

About a decade ago, programmers were a small group of specialists that organisations looked up to for huge projects and regarded with awe. However, many job roles in the IT industry today need you to have a solid grasp on one or more programming languages.

If you are searching for the best programming languages to learn, there are a number of factors to consider. From learning objective to the level of complexity to job requirement, every language fulfills a different purpose. It is important for you to consider the features and benefits of each programming language before you start on your learning journey.

What are Programming Languages?

Like how we need a particular language to interact with people, programmers interact in a programming language to speak with computers.

A programming language is a series of instructions created in any particular language (such as C, C++, Java, or Python) to carry out a certain task.

A programming language comprises a code that helps computers receive instructions given by a user and allows proper execution of the instructions provided to computers. As hardware keeps emerging to enhance different functionalities, programming languages keep evolving as well to include more regulations and directions.

In simple words, computer programs are commands drafted in a specific language like Python, HTML, Java, Javascript, PHP, CSS, SQL, NoSQL, TypeScript, R, Swift, Kotlin, Matlab, Ruby, and a few other programming languages to accomplish a specialized task.

Here are the best programming languages to learn in 2023

Every programming language has its importance. Some of the most popular programming languages to learn in 2023 are as follows.

  • Python
  • Java
  • JavaScript and TypeScript
  • Swift
  • Ruby
  • C and C++
  • Kotlin
  • HTML
  • R
  • Go

1. Python

Python is one of the most commonly used programming languages today. It is an easy programming language to learn because of its readability. Python is a free, open-source programming language with extensive support modules and community development, easy web services integration, user-friendly data structures, and GUI-based desktop apps. It is a programming language widely used for Machine Learning (ML) and deep learning applications, to develop 2D imaging and 3D animation packages like Blender, Inkscape and Autodesk. Popular video games like Civilization IV, Vegas Trike and Toontown were developed using Python.

Python can be used easily by beginners and allows them to become productive with it soon enough.

The main benefits of Python are:

  • Flexibility
  • Naturally/ intuitively readable
  • Credible official tutorials and documentation exists
  • Scripted instead of compiled, unlike other programming languages

To work with python you need problem-solving and abstract thinking skills. The only downside to learning Python is that it doesn’t start with programming basics, meaning it abstracts too many basic concepts.

Python is one of the most well-known programming languages. Python programming language is effortless to learn due to its readability. The programming language is free and openly sourced with 

  • comprehensive backup modules

  • associative evolvement

  • effortless assimilation with web services

  • handy data structures

  • desktop applications based on the graphical user interface. 

Python is a well-known programming language for machine learning and deep learning applications.

The uses of the Python programming language are

  • Enhanced 2D imaging and 3D animation packages such as AutoDesk, Blender, and Inkscape

  • Creates well-known video games such as Toontown, Civilization IV, Trike, and Vegas

  • For experimental and computational applications such as FreeCAD and Abacus by several social media websites like Instagram, Youtube, Pinterest, and Quora

Beginners can effortlessly use the Python programming language. The programming language aids beginners in being productive.

Some of the key advantages of using Python are:

  • Python is scripted and not like the other programming languages.

  • The Python programming language is flexible.

  • It is readable.

  • Official tutorials and documentation are available.

Some cons of learning a programming language are

  • People need good problem-solving skills to learn Python programming. 

  • The only disadvantage of learning the language is that Python programming language begins with something other than programming basics.

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2. Java

Java is owned by Oracle Corporation and is one of the most in-demand computer programming languages in the world today. It is a standard programming language, applied to applications that can be used regardless of the platform - Apple, Android etc - owing to its WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere) capabilities. Java’s WORA capabilities also ensure it is recognised for easy portability across platforms, from mainframe data centres to smart mobile devices.

There are more than 3 billion devices today that run Java applications. Java is used extensively in web and app development and Big Data. Many popular websites including Google, Amazon, Twitter and Youtube use Java in the back-end. Newer Java frameworks like Spring, Struts and Hibernate are also extremely popular. If you want to learn, there are hundreds of texts written and shared by the millions of Java developers around the world.

Java is an intermediate level language that demands problem-solving skills and knowledge of Java’s object-oriented structure.

Its main benefits are:

  • Teaches you how to think like a programmer
  • Enables you to access/ manipulate the most vital parts of your system like the system files, graphics and speakers for a range of fairly sophisticated programs that run on any operating system.

Crucial perks of Java programming language are

  • Java programming language teaches learners to think about how a developer thinks.

  • It lets people use crucial parts of their system, such as the system files, graphics, etc., for programs that run on any operating system.

Some disadvantages of learning Java programming language are

  • Learners have to learn many new programming words.

  • Java is a high-standard language compared to other programming languages like Python, HTML, etc.

Skills that learners need to learn Java are

  • Problem-solving skills.

  • Knowing object-oriented frameworks.

3. JavaScript and TypeScript

Like Java, JavaScript is an object-oriented programming language, mainly used to add interactivity and engaging effects within web browsers. TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, used to add optional static typing to the programming language.

JavaScript is one of the three main technologies within the World Wide Web, the other two being HTML and CSS. Popular websites like Google, Wikipedia, YouTube and Facebook use JavaScript at the front-end too. JavaScript is also incorporated in popular frameworks like AngularJS, Node.js and React.js.

Javascript is an object-oriented and high-level programming language. It is a core technology of the World Wide Web. Earlier known as LiveScript, the programming language came into existence in 1995. Well-known websites like Youtube, Wikipedia, Facebook, and Google use Javascript as the front-end language.

Famous frameworks such as AngularJS, Node6, js, and React.js comprise Javascript language. Javascript is the most well-known programming language in contrast to others. As time went by, Javascript became a self-reliant programming language. 

There are multiple benefits of JavaScript:

  • Adds responsive elements on web pages, including games, dropdown menus, animations and video players.
  • Used to create mobile apps since the introduction of frameworks like PhoneGap and React.
  • Vue.js, Angular, Node and React Native are also JavaScript-based frameworks, which makes JavaScript a significantly important programming language. Uber, PayPal and Netflix use Node.js extensively.
  • Javascript adds receptive elements to website pages, games, videos, and animation.
  • After the launch of structures such as PhoneGap and React, programmers used Javascript to develop mobile applications.
  • Javascript is a significant programming language because Netflix, and Uber, use Javascript frameworks such as Node, React Native, Angular, etc.

The cons of learning Javascript are

  • Different browsers can interpret the programming language alternately.
  • Due to its different interpretations, the programming language is arduous to write cross-browser codes.

Learners must know the HTML and Cascading Style Sheets programming language to describe the content and design the website pages.

You May Also Like: 10 Reasons You Should Learn R, Python, and Hadoop

4. Swift

Swift was developed by Apple Inc to provide a single platform with a wide range of applications - from desktop and mobile apps, to cloud services and systems programming. Launched in 2014 for Linux and Mac, Swift was among the top 10 in the monthly TIOBE Index ranking that identifies popular programming languages. It is an open-source programming language which is easier to learn and requires a lot less coding as compared to other programming languages.

Technology company Apple developed the Swift programming language to give one platform for multiple applications such as cloud services and system programming. Apple created the programming language for Linux and Mac applications. Well-known iOS applications, such as Mozilla Firefox, and WordPress, use Swift programming language.

Swift can be used with IBM Swift Sandbox and IBM Bluemix and is used in popular apps like WordPress, Mozilla Firefox and SoundCloud. There are many reasons for choosing Swift to make your resume more impressive.

The main benefits include:

  • Flexible and secure programming, built on the fundamentals of Objective C.
  • Offers the flexibility, dynamic dispatch, extendable programming and late binding of Objective C, without the posed performance and security issues that it has.
  • Faster than C, Objective C and C++. New Swift modules that you write can easily be integrated with existing Objective-C codebases.
  • Allows the usage of emoji in the code
  • Easy-on-the-eyes syntax, very close to spoken English and is easy for beginners to learn. This prevents typing errors in the code.
  • Offers automatic memory management and error management. Similar to Python, Swift is scalable to a great degree and allows new features to be added to pre-existing code.
  • Swift is effortless to learn.
  • The programming language is flexible and dynamic.
  • Swift allows emoji use in its code.
  • The programming language is quicker than other programming languages like C++ and C.
  • Incorporate new modules of the programming language effortlessly with the current Objective-C codebases.
  • Swift is similar to spoken English. Beginners can learn it effortlessly.
  • The programming language is similar to Python and has automatic memory and error handling.

Some disadvantages of learning Swift are:

  • Swift does not back up earlier versions of iOS.

  • Swift is still at a stage where it needs development, meaning it is a young language.

People wanting to learn Swift must have the following skills:

  • There is no requirement to know other programming languages.

  • People who can spend time reading and watching tutorials.

5. Ruby

Developed in 1990, Ruby was designed to have a more human-friendly syntax. Its object-oriented architecture supports procedural and functional programming and is highly flexible. Ruby is a great programming language to start with if you are looking to learn programming languages.

Ruby on Rails (RoR) is a web-application framework that is implemented in Ruby. According to developers, it is an easy language to work with and requires very little time to learn. You need to have problem-solving skills and be able to visualise what application users want to see.

The main benefits of Ruby are:

  • No specialised vocabulary is needed to get started
  • Implements a good programming style
  • Highly flexible

Additional Read: Java Certification: A Complete Guide [Updated]

6. C and C++

C is among the oldest programming languages still highly in use. It is the root of many other languages. C#, Java and JavaScript have all branched out from C. C++ is an enhanced version of C. Developers today are divided on how to learn C. Some skip learning C on its own, preferring to take up C++ or C# instead. Others believe that learning C first gives a strong grasp on the fundamentals of the language.

Despite the difference in opinion, both languages are widely used in computer science and programming. Since C and C++ are focused at low-level management of computer resources, you must have knowledge of computer functions like memory management before you start learning. You should also have problem-solving skills along with basic computer knowledge.

Both C and C++ are high-performance programming languages. They are used extensively in the development of client/ server applications, commercial products like Firefox and Adobe, video games, and other applications where performance is a critical issue. There are different benefits when it comes to C and C++.

  • C teaches you the fundamentals of a variety of languages other than just C.
  • C++ gives you a lot more control than other programming languages

However, there are also a few downsides to them.

  • C has a steep learning curve. It is not very easy to learn and takes a lot of time for beginners to get a hang of.
  • C++ is highly challenging to learn and gain fluency compared to C. Java is a lot easier to learn in this regard.

7. Kotlin

In May 2019, Google declared Kotlin as their programming language of choice for Android app development. The same way that Swift was developed to overcome the drawbacks of Objective C, Kotlin was designed to be an improvement on the shortcomings of Java.

Since its launch in 2011, it continues to grow its loyal user base with users switching over from Java for a better experience. Kotlin is a license-free, open-source language and encourages the exchange of ideas for development as a community. It offers a lean syntax that is easy to write and learn, more specifically, it uses code volumes that are 20% shorter than that of Java. What makes it so easy to use and interoperable is the fact that Java codes can run on Kotlin and vice-versa.

The main benefits of using Kotlin are:

  • Key value additions for the developer, including operator overloading, null safety and data. It also has a lazy-loading feature that reduces the app load-time and improves the user experience.
  • It is packaged with an advanced compiler to maintain checks and balances at compile and run time.


HTML is the acronym for HyperText Markup Language. The HTML programming language is the standard language for creating website pages and applications. People can use the HTML programming language to add pictures, links, and alternate forms of content to website pages. The HyperText Markup Language is uncomplicated, allowing anyone to create a basic website page with some knowledge of the HTML programming language.

The HTML programming language allows to create an organized document by mentioning organized connotations for text elements such as quotes, links, headings, and paragraphs. Tags written in angular brackets define HTML elements.

Some benefits of the HTML are as follows.

  • Create organized and standard website pages that are effortless to tackle and retain.

  • People new to website development can effortlessly learn the HTML programming language.

  • Besides the CSS and JavaScript Language, people can use HTML programming language to present content on the web.

  • HTML gives better content backup and is an effective tool for creating good web experiences.

  • HTML has unique features such as local storage, 2D and 3D graphics, and audio and video elements.

Some drawbacks of the HyperText Programming language are

  • The HyperText Markup Language is a markup language and not as expensive as alternate programming languages like PHP, Java, Python, Javascript, etc. Complicated website applications are more challenging to evolve in HTML.

  • HTML is not a safe programming language to use. Therefore, website developers must carefully use security measures as a precaution against susceptibilities.

  • HTML can be challenging for people new to programming, as it has multiple elements and syntax rules.


R is an openly sourced programming language. It is different from the S programming language. Most codes that programmers develop for the S programming language run on the R language without any changes. The R programming language differs from the programming languages beginners can learn effortlessly.

Like alternate open-source programming languages, the R programming language comprises an active online group of programmers. Composing an active online group of programmers is an advantage when learning new coding skills. 

To learn the R programming language, people need some specific skills.

The required skills are

  • Knowledge of programming languages such as Javascript and Python.

  • Having a good understanding of mathematics.

Some benefits of learning the R programming language are

  • The R programming language is openly sourced.

  • An accessibility board range of packages.

  • Apt for machine learning applications.

  • Effective backup for data management.

  • Cross-functional with Mac Operating System.

Some disadvantages of learning the R programming language are

  • Objects of the R programming language get saved in the memory and put pressure on resources.

  • The R programming language does not have the necessary safety precautions.

  • The R programming language is slower than other programming languages, such as MATLAB and Python.


Technology company Google developed the programming language for Application Programming interfaces and web applications. Due to the simple nature of the programming language, Go became a quickly growing programming language. The programming language is also called Golang and was developed for programmers working on big projects. 

Due to its uncomplicated nature, many information technology companies like Dropbox, Uber, Twitch, and Google use Go. Due to its smooth performance, Go is becoming popular among data scientists and analysts.

The programming language can tackle large codebases and multiple network systems.

Some benefits of learning Go are

  • Minimalist programming language.

  • Effortless to learn.

  • Adaptable.

  • Consistent.

  • Quick.

Some cons of learning a programming language are

  • Low library support.

  • The programmer is not supportive.

  • One can write more code than in other programming languages.

Some skills that learners should possess are

  • Knowledge of one alternate programming language.

  • Patience and willingness to learn the programming language.

Get Started Today!

If you want to move laterally into a new field, advance along the corporate ladder at your organisation, or start a career as a programmer, learning one of the languages on this list is the perfect place to begin. Choose a language depending on your fluency and current skillset and enroll with a training program at Koenig to start learning today.

Koenig offers flexible hours and time slots and uses a 1-to-1 teaching methodology. You get not only the skills and knowledge required but also the certification that validates your expertise. This means a more lucrative resume, more career opportunities and that high salary package that has been eluding you.


Even though there are multiple programming languages, only some make it to a person’s checklist. The programming languages mentioned and defined above top the checklist as the most popular programming languages. Whoever wishes to begin their career as a developer, as an expert in the programming language field, switch to a contrasting field, and boost the scope at the current job role, learning the most popular coding languages is a brilliant choice. Programming Language courses vary from HTML at the beginner level to Javascript at the expert level, and people can look for the best option for them.

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Michael Warne

Michael Warne is a tech blogger and IT Certification Trainer at Koenig Solutions. She has an experience of 5 years in the industry, and has worked for top-notch IT companies. She is an IT career consultant for students who pursue various types of IT certifications.